von Pragmatik-Mitarbeitern im September 2015

Banner LiM 2015Vortrag auf der 6th International "Language in the media“ Conference, 7.-9.9.2015, Universität Hamburg

  • Axel Schmidt: "From 'in Media' to 'accomplishing media' – Communicative practices in the production of television tabloid formats."
Television as a form of so called mass media can be considered as interaction in three ways: First there is interaction within the product (e.g. a talkshow), second there is a form of interaction between broadcasters and audience (for which Horton & Wohl (1956) coined the term “parasocial interaction”) and finally third there are interaction processes in the course of the production of a television show. All three forms are interrelated with respect to television as a process of mass communication (vgl. Sutter 2001): TV makers based on the anticipated needs of viewers, what is reflected in the product.
In my presentation I will focus on the interface of “in media” (product) and “accomplishing media" (production) by investigating communicative practices during the production of a German television tabloid format. Since I'm primarily interested in the process of implementing prior conditions (or resources like persons, objects, space) in a media product, I will focus on practices during the shooting process (camera handling, dealing with protagonists, delineate appropriate objects for filming etc.). Drawing on a corpus of video data (of about 30 hours) from an ethnographic research project on media production collected in 2013 I will show:
• How The TV-production-team accomplishes appropriate objects for filming and thereby constitutes 'motifs';
• How their protagonist (in this case a police officer) adopts a leading role in this process and thereby forces the professionals (the TV-makers) to negotiate standards of appropriateness;
• Which criteria are in play for 'things' that are 'designed to be onstage' and which beliefs and notions about the appropriateness of filmed objects are reconstructable on this basis;
• That and how the protagonist seems to function as a 'vicarious audience member', in that he articulates his ideas in the form of well-intentioned advice and thereby anticipates how the nascent product should look like.
Basis for my argument is a detailed analysis of a single case (a short extract from a TV-shooting) drawing methodologically on conversation analysis and multimodal analysis (vgl. Mondada 2008, 2014).
Horton, Donald/Wohl, Richard R. (1956): Mass Communication and para-social interaction: Observations on intimacy at a distance. In: Psychiatry, 19, S. 215-229.
Mondada, Lorenza (2008): Using Video for a Sequential and Multimodal Analysis of Social Interaction: Videotaping Institutional Telephone Calls [88 paragraphs]. In: Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 9, 3, Art. 39.
Mondada, Lorenza (2014): Conventions for multimodal transcription. Online-Dokument (https://franz.unibas.ch/fileadmin/franz/user_upload/redaktion/Mondada_conv_multimodality.pdf; letzter Zugriff: 13.02.2015).
Sutter, Tilmann (2001): Sinnstrukturen der Medienkommunikation. In: Sutter, Tillmann/ Charlton, Michael (Hg.): Massenkommunikation, Interaktion und soziales Handeln. Wiesbaden: Westdeutscher Verlag. S. 21-45.

Vortrag auf der #BreMM15: Second Bremen Conference on Multimodality, 21.-22.9.2015

Audiovisual media artifacts are characterized by specific qualities of the depicted subject matter (such as simultaneity, emotional impression through images, impressions beyond linguistic categorizations etc.) and by its modes of production (e.g. camera actions). The complex and volatile layers of meaning in audiovisual media artifacts demand an adequate methodological tool to transcribe, analyze, and ulti-mately reconstruct the inherent singular subject matter (image, text, or sound) as well as mutual audio-visual correlations and coherences.
trAVis1 (www.travis-analysis.org) is a music-based web application to transcribe and analyze the spe-cific entangled relations of (moving) images, text and sound/music in audiovisual media products. In trAVis, a free editable work space allows to transcribe and analyze different modalities (images, camera, editing, gestures, music, rhythm etc.) in a time-based representation by freely dragging, creating, and arranging annotation tiles along a timeline. This way, intermedia relationships can be visualized simul-taneously in a vertical order (i.e.: What is happening at the same time?) and sequentially in a horizontal order (i.e.: What is happening sequentially?) all in a single graphic illustration. Therefore essential com-ponents of multimodal approaches such as simultaneous and sequential interactions of different modal-ities are represented in their chronological execution.
In our presentation, we aim to exemplify the modes of operation of trAVis and demonstrate some basic insights into the make-up of multimodal/audiovisual events that can be gained by working with this web application.
trAVis (transcription audiovisual) was developed at the Seminar for Media Studies, University of Basel (Seminar für Medienwissenschaft, Universität Basel) in the research project “Image-text-sound-analyses in the genre context of video clips” („Bild-Text-Ton-Analysen am Beispiel der Gattung Videoclip“, 2008–2011) under the lead of Prof. Dr. Klaus Neumann-Braun (project members: PD Dr. Christofer Jost, Dr. Daniel Klug, PD Dr. Axel Schmidt). For analyses using trAVis see Jost/Klug 2009, Jost et al. 2009 and Jost et al. 2013. trAVis is accessable at no charge at www.travis-analysis.org and registered as open source under GNU Affero General Public License (AGPL) (www.gnu.org/licenses/agpl.html).

Vortrag auf der Sektionentagung der Gesellschaft für Angewandte Linguistik (GAL), 23.-25. September 2015, Europa Universität Viadrina Frankfurt (Oder) in der Sektion "Gesprächsforschung"

In psychotherapeutischen Erstgesprächen begegnen sich Patient und Therapeut zum ersten Mal. Für beide Beteiligte geht es darum, Grundlagen für eine gute Zusammenarbeit zu schaffen, eine Klärung des Anliegens zu erreichen und Ziele zu formulieren. Voraussetzung dafür ist auch eine gelingende Gesprächseröffnung. In Gesprächen, die dem Konzept der Operationalisierten Psychodynamischen Diagnostik (OPD; Arbeitskreis OPD 2009) verpflichtet sind, soll die Gesprächseröffnung in Erstgesprächen neutral und ohne problem- resp. beschwerdenorientierte Vorgaben erfolgen. Gesprächsanalytische Untersuchungen zeigen, dass dies nicht immer der Fall ist und sich darüber hinaus die Eröffnungen auch in anderen Hinsichten unterscheiden. Je nachdem, wie aktiv sich der Patient einbringt oder wie der Therapeut die Gesprächsbereitschaft des Patienten einschätzt, werden unterschiedliche und unterschiedlich viele Aspekte thematisiert. Der Vortrag beleuchtet die Eingangsszenen und analysiert die verschiedenen Möglichkeiten der gemeinsamen Herstellung der Gesprächseröffnung. Die Daten stammen aus der Kooperation mit der Klinik für Allgemeine Innere Medizin & Psychosomatik am Universitätsklinikum Heidelberg. Es handelt sich um Gespräche, die zu Forschungszwecken zur Weiterentwicklung des OPD-Konzepts aufgezeichnet wurden. Literatur:
ARBEITSKREIS OPD (Hrsg.) (2009): Operationalisierte Psychodynamische Diagnostik OPD-2. Das Manual für Diagnostik und Therapie. Bern.